"E V O is a visually daring documentary look at evolutionary theory that comes off like a university course in paleo-biology as taught by Marshall McLuhan." Monday Magazine

Selected Festivals & Events

The International Scientific Film Festival, Hungary — Opening film of Festival
The International Documentary Film Festival of Amsterdam
European Media Arts Festival, Germany
The Hot Docs ! International Documentary Festival, Toronto
The Vancouver International Film Festival
The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
The World Transhumanist Association in cooperation with the McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology and Transhumanist Arts & Culture Art and Life in the Posthuman Era | University of Toronto

"EVO will mess with your mind; bending it, expanding it and teaching it that it is merely part of a continuum. The experience is simultaneously humbling and exhilarating. A fabulous achievement!" Kevin McMahon

"A sprawling effort that deals with nothing less than "evolution" itself.

Whether he's quoting the likes of Richard Dawkins or the father of evolution himself, Charles Darwin, Vancouver-based filmmaker Hockenhull brings a wealth of information and intellectual constructs to the fore in this digital package. The most amazing thing is how he touches on so many aspects of evolution in the same movie, without really losing his train of thought. From the religious debate surrounding evolution vs. Genesis, to genetic engineering and the human animal in the digital age, Hockenhull pulls it all together.

Perhaps it works because he's not imposing any obvious external structure on this experimental film and just lets the information lead you to your own conclusions. Then again, maybe it's the way he marries content to the digital medium...A fascinating journey."

Katherine Monk, The Vancouver Sun

° a study and reflection on the history and future of evolutionary theory, its meaning to humans, with a focus on the question of contingency as argued by Naturalist Stephen J. Gould in his best seller "Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History".

° stars a Sony Neoteny CyberGeisha with a nostalgic robotic voice implant, Dr. Desmond Collins, Senior Curator/palaeontologist of the Royal Ontario Museum, a London based gorilla, Delacroix's Liberty, the Rocky Mountains of Canada, and Dr. Richard Dawkins - the eminent evolutionist, acclaimed author and Oxford Professor.

The work also reflects on some of the key historical personages of evolution - Charles Darwin and his principal European disciple: Ernst Haeckel of Jena, Germany.



Mari Sasano - GirlBot
Dr. Desmond Collins
Dr. Richard Dawkins
Sara Butterfield - Intellectual
Marjan Eggermont -

Green Screen Shoot Crew:
Lighting/Camera - Alex Postowoi
Sound Recordist - Jeff Carter
Gaffer - Darren Sinclair
Costume - Enigma Arcana
Make Up - Maja Djilas
Production Assistant/Stills - Roberta Cantelon

Other Assistance:
Alex Mackenzie and The Blinding Light!!
Dr. Michio Kaku
One of the gorillas at the London Zoo


Darwin was among the first scientists to attempt to use photography to record moments of activity previously invisible to the human eye. He commissioned and collected hundreds of photographs depicting various aspects of human expression. Although technical limitations compromised the utility of these photographs, Darwin used many of them to illustrate The Expression of the Emotions. The Expression thus became one of the first photographically illustrated scientific treatises, and the only work in which Darwin reproduced actual photographs.

Software/Image Programming Assistance:
Scott Draves & Andrew Davidson for

Original Ants and Pikaia programming
(A.I. and base C.G.)
Ishihama Yoshiaki

Institutional Assistance:
The Burgess Shale Foundation
The Cheltenham Festival of Science
The Cambridge University Library
Darwin Archives (amazing)

Muxic and Sound: Oliver Hockenhull
Additional Muxic: Schoenberg and Negativeland

Funding Agencies:
#1 - The Canada Council for the Arts
#2 - The Alberta Foundation for the Arts

The brainchild of Oliver Hockenhull (Aldous Huxley: The Gravity of Light), the eerie and often beautiful EVO builds from footage of renowned scholars discussing Darwin's theories and the famed Burgess Shale... If this seems a tad dry, its treatment verges on the wild: much of the material gets an impressionistic visual treatment as it segues into provocative speculations involving politics, genetics and wormholes. 

|| SPECIALS|| Kunsthalle Dominikanerkirche || European Media Arts Festival | Osnabrück

E V O ist eine Studie und Reflektion der Geschichte und Zukunft der Evolutionstheorie, ihrer Bedeutung für die Menschen, mit dem Schwerpunkt auf der Frage nach UNGEWISSHEIT, wie durch den berühmten Naturforscher Stephen J. Gould in seinem Bestseller "Wonderful Life– The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History", dargelegt. Ferner tritt der berühmte Oxford Professor Dr. Richard Dawkins (gefeierter Autor von ‘The Selfish Gene’) auf. Die Hauptrollen in EVO spielen eine ‚Sony Neoteny CyberGeisha’ mit nostalgischem Roboter-Stimmimplantat. Dr. Richard Dawkins – der berühmte Evolutionär, umjubelter Autor und Professor in Oxford, Dr. Desmond Collins, Senior Kurator/Paläontologe des Royal Ontario Museum, ein Gorilla aus London, Delacroixs 'Liberty', und die kanadischen Rocky Mountains. Ferner werden auch einige der historischen Schlüsselpersonen der Evolutionstheorie wie Charles Darwin und sein Hauptjünger in Europa, Ernst Häckel aus Jena in Deutschland, besprochen.

Es ist eine philosophische, seltsame, radikale Untersuchung und enthält Bilder mit persönlich geknackter C.G. Software, Abwandlungen künstlicher Lebensalgorithmen und Fraktal-Generatoren. E V O ist eine intellektuell anspruchsvolle Dokumentation – im Stil begrenzten Mitteleinsatzes – die sich weigert abzufallen, E V O ist vielmehr eine "wise up" Dokumentation über die bedeutendsten Ideen der Menschheit - Evolution, natürliche Selektion, Gentechnologie, Freiheit, und Ökologie.

"Eine visuell verspielte, ungestüm intelligente Erkundung der Geschichte und Zukunft der Evolutionstheorie und ihres Einflusses auf die menschliche Gesellschaft...Gefüllt mit berührenden Konzepten und kompliziert komponierten Bildern, summt E V O vor Energie und Einblicken." Vancouver International Film Festival - Elan Mastai

"...Ein Reichtum an Informationen und intellektuellen Konstrukten. Das beeindruckenste ist, wie er so viele Aspekte der Evolution in ein und demselben Film behandelt. Eine faszinierende Reise..." - Katherine Monk, The Vancouver Sun

Oliver Hockenhull ist ein Filmemacher aus Vancouver, Medienkünstler, Drehbuchautor, Kommunikationstheoretiker, Hypermedia Künstler und Dozent. Er hat sechs Arbeiten in Spielfilmlänge und unzählige schauspielerische und experimentelle Kurzfilme geschaffen. Die Filme wurden bei prestigeträchtigen internationalen Festspielen und Schauplätzen gezeigt. In seinen Arbeiten überschneidet sich das Historische und das Imaginäre, die Politik und die Poesie. Hoch bildhaltig sind sie wie innere und gelehrte Untersuchungen der emotionalen und intellektuellen Rätsel unseres zeitgenössischen Lebens.

Loose Notes from Darwin’s “Notebook M” & the “Red Notebook”

Darwin: 'Nothing For any Purpose'

& interspersed with my own musings | notebooks
"The Red Notebook" formally part of the collection of Darwin manuscripts at Down house in Kent, Darwin's home from 1842 to his death, and, since 1929, a museum in his honour. Now at the famed Darwin's Archives at Cambridge University the notebook (164 x 100 mm) is bound in red leather, blind embossed on both sides, and has a metal clasp. The front and back covers bear the initials 'R.N.' on rectangular pieces of white paper, and on the back cover is written 'Range of Sharks', referring to an entry within the notebook. There is also written in large letters across the back of the notebook 'Nothing For any Purpose'.

All the inscriptions are in brown ink in Darwin's hand, with the exception of a circled '16' in the hand of Nora Barlow on the inside front cover and the notation '1.2' made by an unknown cataloguer, on the inside back cover.

The Red Notebook
The Torn Apart Notebook
The Old and Useless Notebook
The Notebook "C" - Implications
The Notebood "M" - Metaphysics (?)
The Notebook "N" - New Ideas
Darwin’s happiest years were spent at Down House. It was very much a family home as well as being the centre of his intellectual world. The landscape and gardens provided the focus for much of the research underpinning Darwin’s theories and writing.

The ‘sand-walk’ or ‘thinking path’ which Darwin walked daily can still be followed. (A section of the film walks along this
iconic path.)


So the Burgess Shales Walcott Quarry

Elevation gain: 750 metres or 2500 feet
Distance: 21 km (12 miles) round trip, 10 hours
Difficulty: Moderate (long)
Purpose is not imported into nature, and need not be puzzled over as a strange or divine something else that gets inside and makes life go...it is simply implicit in the fact of biological organization
One thing that we are - dependent on a story of who the fuck we are.
Current postulates regarding human evolution: a function of a co-evolution between genes and memes.
Tell yourself not to conclude, not to totalize yet what is the humanist agenda but to draw the rope around – to leave us hanging from an equality that eradicates our hatreds and our differences. Erase the event of time and place, erase the mortal self-resulting in a translucent finality identical to not existing…or rather existing as a relay of consequences …the random certainty of the ubiquitous. A Fearful symmetry
Our technologies are the fictions of our reason applied to the engineering of our lives. We are now diving into our own minds likeness. the technological and the biological, once regarded as opposites, are today increasingly merging into hybrid constellations.
The crisis of representation derives precisely from this
catastrophic collapse of difference; when the sign and the referent
are drawn together in an "implosive madness" the space that is representation disappears..
Here is a fact of intrigue 80% of your faeces is made up of anaerobic bacteria.
Discontinuity in evolution is more substantial than continuity.

Levels of information process hidden from the conscious level of self.

We need to halve our impact (I) upon the environment, as the impact is already unsustainable

Populations (P) will double to 10 billion by the year 2050

Current development trends mean that the average consumption (C) per person will quadruple by 2050.

A control of population growth is the only answer.

You know yes that Malthus was before Darwin. And Darwin read his Malthus.
"In October 1838, that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic inquiry, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long- continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The results of this would be the formation of a new species. Here, then I had at last got a theory by which to work".
Charles Darwin, from his autobiography. (1876)

There is substantial evidence that organisms are not limited for their evolution to genes that belong to the gene pool of their species. Rather it seems more plausible that in the time-scale of evolution the whole of the gene pool of the biosphere is available to all organisms and that the more dramatic steps and apparent discontinuities in evolution are in fact attributable to very rare events involving the adaptation of part or all of a foreign genome. Organisms and genomes may thus be regarded as compartments of the biosphere through which genes and operands may be incorporated if of sufficient advantage...

Humans are not insulated from genetic traffic.
Meanwhile concerning consumption: An average American eats 68 kilograms of grain per person annually, while 680 kilograms of grain per person is fed to U.S. livestock each year,

It's the second law — fill in the blank.


Mass extinctions redirect the evolutionary process in unpredictable ways. The reduction in species opens the way for the emergence of new life forms. During the 530 million years of multicellular life, there have been at least five major and many minor mass extinction. Gould (1994) suggested that mammals and subsequently humanity may not have become dominant on earth had it not been for the global catastrophe that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs and large marine reptiles at the end of the Cretaceous period 65 million years ago (Whitfield, 1993). Mammals and dinosaurs coexisted for 100 million years. Mammals remained rat-sized or smaller during the dominance of the dinosaurs. Early mammals of 50 million years ago, were probably similar to modern tree shrews. With the extinction of the dominant dinosaurs, mammals rapidly evolved to fill many ecological niches.

The very essence of instinct is that it's followed independently of reason.
I have steadily endeavored to keep my mind free so to give up any hypothesis, however much beloved (and I cannot resist forming one on every subject), as soon as facts are shown to be opposed to it.

Believing as I do that man in the distant future will be a far more perfect creature than he now is, it is an intolerable thought that he and all other sentient beings are doomed to complete annihilation after such long continued slow progress. To those who fully admit the immortality of the human soul, the destruction of our planet will not appear so dreadful
— Charles Darwin (The Decent of Man 1871)

"At last gleams of light have come, and I am almost convinced (quite contrary to the opinion I started with) that species are not (it is like confessing to murder) immutable." C. D.

The composite nature of our Being will soon be revolutionized by Biology.
Infection and sex is virtually the same thing.
Earth formed 4.5 Billion Years Ago. Prokaryotes 3.5 Billion B.P.
Eukaryotes —1.4 Billion BP
Multi-Celled organisms - 700 Million Years Ago B.P.

No designer but yet design —and only design. The fact and facts of the material cosmos — inclusive of its functional laws and relationship of physics.
Y is a damn good question and that is me. I am a male, a biological y chromosome male. I got it from my father who got it from his father, etc. —some 270,000 years — not much in evolutionary history of life on the planet, which is 3.5 million years.

Only males have a y. Females have two happy and reciprocal x's. x chromosomal pairs exchange and reciprocate x and y's don't, not much.

Y's are said to be full of wild jungles of useless information. Junkyards full of data that has apparently no purpose - scientist speculation is that this jumble is dross - but what do they know? Maybe noise is necessary for the serendipitous to happen, for mutations to spring from, for being able to intuitively find the sports channel.

You never know when a piece of junk can come in handy...Maybe the Y is the guy on the block with a garage full of stuff, stuff he never uses but can't bare to part with. Men feel that they have been successful at some projects if they have done so using a strategy or a tool ill suited for the purpose.
Species extinction is an ecological phenomenon: the fall out of ecosystem disruption, degradation, and eventual outright destruction. The connection between the evolution of life and the physical history of the earth lies through ecology...
Linnaean Hierarchy
Humans are animals within the Kingdom animalia, we are vertebrates which is a subphlum of the phlum chordata, we are of the class mammalia —we are primates - we are members of the family Hominidae,— genus homo, species Homo Sapiens.

To Linnaeus — there is pattern in biological nature but the pattern is immutable and defined by God.

Darwin gave reason to Linnaeus's taxonomy by the theory of descent with modification.

"...Probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on earth have descended from some primordial form." Darwin

The history of the planet has profoundly affected the history of life...the reverse is true as well. Life forms have transformed the face of the earth.
"The gradual construction of thought through speaking." Kliest

Only those who are alive to self generate meaning are alive.

Is it reasonable to assume that the world and the Universe is exact?

That the chance that plays its part is part of a greater calculation of complexity? A perpetually multiplicity whose singularity is a variable of expressivity? The expressivity of all worlds would yet be contained and confined by the economy of forces entertained in the world.

Plants and animals divided into phyla, divided into classes, divided into orders divided into families, divided into genera, divided into Species.

Cultural identity, in its virulent form, is a phenotypical behavioural pattern (tribal bonding) that encourages the posturings of competition (and warfare).

Burgess Shale (Walcott Quarry)
Elevation gain: 750 metres or 2500 feet
—from Takakkaw Falls trailhead -
Distance: 21 km (12 miles) round trip, 10 hours
Difficulty: Moderate (long)
— Natural Selection = information filtration system — thus life from the replication inherent in crystalline matter. from silica, from clay, from the direction the wind and the forces of a world in motion and dynamics and chance.

As my conclusions have lately been much misrepresented, and it has been stated that I attribute the modification of species exclusively to natural selection, I may be permitted to remark that in the first edition of this work, and subsequently, I placed in a most conspicuous position—namely at the close of the Introduction—the following words: “I am convinced that natural selection has been the main but not the exclusive means of modification.” This has been of no avail. Great is the power of steady misrepresentation. - Charles Darwin

The U.N. Cafeteria
BAGHDAD, May 5 (AFP) - The Iraqi trade ministry announced Friday it had increased rations of powdered milk for adults and vegetable oil from the start of May, the official INA news agency reported. "Food rations per person will now comprise 1.250 kilograms (2.8 pounds) of vegetable oil and 500 grams (1.1 pounds) of milk," a ministry spokesman said, quoted by INA.

The previous ration was one kilo of oil and 250 grams of milk. The monthly ration per person also comprises nine kilograms (19.8 pounds) of flour, 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds) of rice, two kilograms (4.4 pounds) of sugar, 150 grams (0.3 pounds) of tea, one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of beans and 150 grams of salt. It also includes 2.7 kilograms (six pounds) of powdered baby's milk, 250 grams (0.6 pounds) of soap and 350 grams (0.8 pounds) of detergent.
The Iraqi authorities distributed ration cards to buy subsidized basic goods in December for the 11th year running in a country where the average wage is five dollars a month. The government first handed out the cards when the United Nations imposed an embargo on the country following its August 1990 invasion of Kuwait.
Since 1996, the United Nations has allowed Iraq to sell a limited amount of oil in order to buy basic necessities. More than 10 million people suffer from malnutrition in Iraq where the number of calories consumed each day per person has dropped from 3,581 before the 1990 embargo to the current 2,033, according to official figures.

Q Is child malnutrition still a problem?

The most recent reports on Iraq show that the severe situation described by the Security Council Humanitarian Panel and UNICEF in 1999 has not changed substantially. In particular, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) published an assessment of the food and nutrition situation in Iraq in September 2000. The report was based on the findings of a mission to Iraq in May 2000.

The report shows that in South/Central Iraq, malnutrition "remains unacceptably high ... since the six-monthly surveys began in 1997 it appears that there has been little further improvement except for chronic malnutrition [...] still, at least about 800,000 children under the age of five are chronically malnourished" (p.17). The report stated that its results "corroborate ... the findings of the 1999 Mortality Survey supported by UNICEF that found more than a two-fold increase in infant and child mortality since the end of the 1980s" .

While all age groups suffer from insufficient supply of micronutrients, caloric malnutrition problems are largely confined to children under 15. However, the report also argues that caloric intake is just about the only nutritional requirement that has been adequately met. The explanation for the continuing problem is that "malnutrition, especially child malnutrition, is often caused by factors other than those related to food", notably "disease and unsafe water" (p.34). The report also implicates overcrowding, poverty, and the lack of education. The conclusion is that "significant improvement in the health and nutrition status of the vulnerable population, and of children and mothers from these households in particular, cannot be achieved without improving these contributing factors" (p.35).

Therefore, many of the causes of malnutrition in south and central Iraq still exist. The continuing crisis in the region was summarized by the UN Secretary-General in his report of 2 March 2001 :

"While chronic malnutrition has decreased in urban areas, it has increased in rural areas." In summary, as Denis Halliday, the former United Nations Humanitarian Co-ordinator in Iraq said after resigning his post in protest at the sanctions regime, we "are in the process of destroying an entire society. It is as simple and terrifying as that. It is illegal and immoral".

This is Texas.  I know a lot of you wish you were in the East Coast, lounging on the beaches, sucking in the salt air, but when you're from Texas -- and love Texas -- this is where you come home, this is my home.  We built a house in the Crawford area, it'll be the house where I live in for the rest of my life.  I like my own home, and I don't mind the heat --
     Q    Are you taking any naps in the afternoon, sir?

     THE PRESIDENT:  I'm working, enjoying myself -- getting a lot done on the ranch, too.  One of the things I find to be, you know, helpful, is to get outdoors.  Washington, D.C. is a fine place, and I'm honored to be working in the Oval Office, staying in the compound there.  But I'm the kind of person that needs to get outdoors.  I like to be outdoors, I like to work outdoors.  It keeps my mind whole, it keeps my spirits up.  I think it's important for people to get outside and to work.

     And I'm making a lot of improvements on the ranch, and I find that to be -- I find that to be a good part of keeping me a balanced person.

I'm amongst friends in Texas.  I think the people of Texas know me, they know what I'm like, they know I can make decisions.  They know I'm a person who stands on principles.  I really don't worry about polls or focus groups.  I do what I think is right.  And so there's no political heat here.  I'm amongst friends.

Very unwell for three months...1867 temporary failure of meaning...

On flowers bending towards light in a mirror.

"Fears his work may lead him to discount what cannot be proved, and advises that there are some things which "if true are likely to be above our comprehension." Emma Darwin.

Was sick but two pills of opium righted me

Mr. Mayo told me the case of a lady, she was one day reading a book, with ivory paper cutter, which she was one day reading a book, with ivory paper cutter, which she valued, and she was suddenly called to go on the lawn to see something, on her return could not find paper cutter, hunted in vain for it- ten years afterwards whilst at a meal, she suddenly like a flash without any assignable cause, remembered she had put it in branch of tree, and apologizing to party, went out and found it there.

Gone from thinking as a general premise to awaiting the decision of the day.

Time magazine declared God dead when was it now?
30 years ago?
A habitual action of thought secreting organs, brought into play by morbid actions

I have read paper somewhere on horse being insane at the sight of anything scarlet.

Language commenced in whole sentences?

The infinite —lives by hopes, looks to eternity reason some transcendental kind.

Why flower beautiful? Even to children?

Where pleasure and pain is felt there must be consciousness Can insects live with no more consciousness than our intestines have?

The transmission of memory

I see no reason why structure of brain should not be born with tendency to makes animals perform some action - as well as gain it by habit - stomach hump, kinds of foot, power of closing nostril, foot, sack, power of endurance.

Consider ground woodpecker stiff tailed cormorant; pain and disease in world and yet talk of perfection.

All part of one great system.

Looking at man, as a naturalist would at any other mammiferous animal - consider this:

how perfect and inhuman and godlike is the demand and
seduction of the revolving days

shining cut of time without


growing perfect

and gone

You hold your dream as if it were more than a scrap of memory
not yet lived

My hands are water

Darwin was pushed to enunciate his ideas in contrast and antagonism to John Macculloch's "Proofs and Illustrations of the Attributes of God from the Facts and Laws of the Physical Universe, being the Foundation of Natural and Revealed Religion" (1837)
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. 1859.


"Pride and suspicion are qualities, which my father says are almost constantly present in people, likely to become insane. - now this is well worth considering, if pride and suspicion can be well understood." Charles Darwin

Free will is to mind what chance is to matter.
It was once said by Darwin:
"It is reserved for men to live this double life. To exist, and to be conscious of existence: to be rational, and to know that he is so."

A dog whines and so does man

We may conclude that neither number, vividness, rapidity, novelty of separate ideas cause fatigue to the mind, it is solely the comparison, with past ideas. Which makes consciousness- & which tells one of reality - castle in the air, is more prolonged than dream. Never fatiguing, - else it only our consciousness, & senses, tell us it is not real
Habitual actions are the reverse of intellectual, there is no comparison of ideas - one follow other as in blindest memory - also low faculty of understanding.

I saw the ourang, take up a stone and pound the earth.

Plato says that our "necessary ideas" arise from the preexistence of the soul, are not derivable from experience - read monkeys for preexistence.

Observers at the Belgian animal park of Planckendael, which currently has the most naturalistic booboo colony, reported similar findings. If a male booboo tried to harass a female, all females would band together to chase him off. Because females appeared more successful in dominating males when they were together than on their own, their close association and frequent genital rubbing may represent an alliance. Females may bond so as to outcompete members of the individually stronger sex.

What do we do with our own silence? Can we endure it?

Mass extinction is a reality.

The attempt to transmutate to another species? A Spiritual species?
Bio diversity has become the various models of SUV's on the market.

Studying the structures of the process of writing and research of Darwin one finds a mess of disparate notes from all manner of areas of studies - his work itself being a process of obvious selection and elimination.

"I fully believe that this work and all your works will have a great influence in the advancement of
science. Believe me my Dear Haeckel, Your Sincere Friend, Charles Darwin”

"I shall continue to work as long as I can; but it does not much signify - when I stop as there are so many good men fully as capable, perhaps more capable than myself of carrying on our work: and of these you rank as the first." CRD to EH, Dec. 27. 1871

"I am sure you will do more than any man in Europe inculcating our great principle of evolution."
CRD to EH - Dec. 26 -74
From CRD to EH
"An artist gone mad could never have imagined such diversified and curious structures."
Jan. 21. 1880

See, for example, the perceptive analysis of the pre-fascist like Social Darwinism thought based largely on Haeckelian Monism, of the Japanese biologists, Hiroyuki Kato (1836-1916) and Asajiro Oka (1864-1944), by Osamu Kanamori, in Tort, Dictionaire du Darwinisme et de l' Evolution
2434-2442, 3268-3276.
The impact of Darwinian and Haeckelian evolution and social Darwinism on modern Japanese
Thought is also insightfully analyzed by Masao Watanabe - "The Japanese and Western Science" - Philadelphia, 1990. For the very important influence of Haeckel on Mao Tse-Tung's concept of Chinese socialism - see - Klaus Mehnert -

Wallace, who is rightfully credited with the independent and simultaneous 'discovery' of the theory of evolution went on to become a believer in spiritualism.
"Man, Haeckel and the Monists contended, was not free to construct society based upon the purely utopian standards of morality that were rooted in Judeo-Christian ethical commandments. They argued that there was deeper, more authentic, natural laws determining the nature of human existence - omnipresent, monist laws - and these had to have free reign in defining the course of politics as well as all other domains of social and historical existence."

According to Gasman: Haeckel was instrumental in early attempts to foster a policy of racial eugenics in Germany…"It was Haeckel's omnipresent Monist vision of the world which decisively contributed to the birth and the development of National Socialist ideology in Germany." And…"In Italy, as in France although this historical and intellectual fact has hardly been recognized Haeckel's influence was vast and incalculable - he wielded a commanding hold over a multiplicity of individuals and organizations his unchallenged scientific reputation often eclipsing the prestige of Darwin himself."

Yet at the same time Haeckel's monism can be seen in a positive light - influencing the avant- garde, a revitalizing of German Naturphilosophen - he had a determent influence on German and French Theosophy and occultism - also important in the crystallization of Freudian and Jungian psychoanalytic theory.

"Man is gifted with pity and other kindly feelings; he has also the power of preventing many kinds of suffering. I conceive it to fall well within his province to replace Natural Selection by other processes that are more merciful and not less effective."
Francis Galton

best link re these future matters: